Effects of smoking opportunity on cue-elicited urge: a facial coding analysis

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Aug;11(3):218-227. doi: 10.1037/1064-1297.11.3.218.


The authors analyzed smokers' facial expressions using the Facial Action Coding System (P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978) under varyingsmoking opportunity conditions. In Experiment 1, smokers first were told that they either could (told-yes) or could not (told-no) smoke during the study. Told-yes smokers reported higher urges than did told-no smokers. Unexpectedly, told-yes smokers became increasingly likely to manifest expressions related to negative affect and less likely to evince expressions related to positive affect, compared with told-no smokers. In Experiment 2, smokers were more likely to show positive affect-related expressions if the delay was 15 s than if it was 60 s. Craving may be related to both a desire to use and an impatient desire to use immediately.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Cues*
  • Facial Expression*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Smoking / psychology*