Regulation and Organization of Adenylyl Cyclases and cAMP

Biochem J. 2003 Nov 1;375(Pt 3):517-29. doi: 10.1042/BJ20031061.


Adenylyl cyclases are a critically important family of multiply regulated signalling molecules. Their susceptibility to many modes of regulation allows them to integrate the activities of a variety of signalling pathways. However, this property brings with it the problem of imparting specificity and discrimination. Recent studies are revealing the range of strategies utilized by the cyclases to solve this problem. Microdomains are a consequence of these solutions, in which cAMP dynamics may differ from the broad cytosol. Currently evolving methodologies are beginning to reveal cAMP fluctuations in these various compartments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenylyl Cyclases / chemistry
  • Adenylyl Cyclases / genetics
  • Adenylyl Cyclases / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calmodulin / metabolism
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Protein Structure, Quaternary
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • Calmodulin
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Adenylyl Cyclases
  • Calcium