Purpose: The hemodynamic changes induced by infrarenal aortic crossclamping have been well documented, but the effects of such crossclamping on cerebral perfusion are unknown. To investigate these effects, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during infrarenal aortic crossclamping in a piglet model.
Methods: The study involved 19 piglets, each weighing 7.8 +/- 1 kg. The NIRS sensor was placed on each animal's forehead. General anesthesia was induced, and the infrarenal abdominal aorta was mobilized through a laparotomy. After heparin (1 mg/kg) was administered, crossclamps were applied proximally and distally. A 2 mm segment was resected from the proximal aortic stump, and an aorto-aortic anastomosis was performed.
Results: Crossclamping lasted for 30.6 +/- 6.7 min. Between the time of baseline measurement and clamp application, the rSO2 did not decrease significantly (65.4%+/- 8.9% vs. 62.4%+/- 7.8%). However, significant decreases in the rSO2 occurred between baseline measurement and clamp removal (65.4%+/- 8.9% vs. 55.7%+/- 8.9%; P<0.01), between baseline measurement and the end of surgery (65.4%+/- 8.9% vs. 57.7%+/- 7.5%; P<0.01), and between clamp application and removal (62.4%+/- 7.8% vs. 55.7%+/- 8.9%; P<0.01). At these same intervals, no intergroup differences occurred in the temperature, heart rate, or mean arterial pressure.
Conclusion: Infrarenal aortic crossclamping significantly decreases the rSO2. NIRS, which has the advantages of being non-invasive and continuous, may be useful for monitoring this variable intraoperatively.