Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a common indication for liver transplantation, but evaluation of patients and timing of liver transplantation remain as major problems. Data from PSC and control patients listed for liver transplantation from 1990 through 2000 in the Nordic countries were recorded prospectively. Outcomes from the waiting list and after transplantation have been recorded for both groups. For PSC patients, regression analyses have been performed to analyze predictors of outcome. A total of 255 PSC and 610 control patients were accepted on the liver transplantation waiting list from 1990 to 2000. In the PSC group, 223 patients (87%) received a first liver allograft, and 32 patients (13%) died without transplantation. The corresponding figures for the control group were 89% and 10%. For PSC patients, the 5- and 10-year survival from the time of acceptance was 68% and 58%, respectively. A higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and a shorter duration of PSC predicted death on the waiting list for PSC patients. PSC is a frequent indication for liver transplantation. In our material, serum bilirubin or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and PSC duration are predictors of outcome including survival of the waiting list.