Candida rugosa has been rarely reported as a human pathogen. We retrospectively evaluated a cluster of Candida rugosa candidemia cases occurring in six hospitalized patients from a tertiary care teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Genetic relatedness among the six C. rugosa outbreak isolates was characterized by RAPD assay using 3 different 10-mer primers and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The source of the outbreak was not identified. All patients had been subjected to invasive medical procedures, including central venous catheterization, surgery or dialysis. Two patients were undergoing amphotericin B therapy prior to the onset of candidemia. The crude mortality rate was very high, despite antifungal therapy. C. rugosa may represent an emerging pathogen associated with invasive medical procedures, able to infect immunocompetent hosts causing serious systemic infection refractory to amphotericin B therapy.