This study was conducted on a stud farm in Sweden to investigate the species composition of cyathostomins expelled in the faeces of horses after deworming using three different anthelmintic preparations. Twenty-seven horses excreting > or = 200 strongyle eggs per gram faeces (EPG) were divided into three comparable groups and dewormed on day 0 with either of following compounds: 0.2 mg ivermectin per kg body weight (bw), 19 mg pyrantel pamoate per kg bw or 7.5 mg fenbendazole per kg bw. For each of the 3 days following anthelmintic treatment faeces was collected from individual horses and subsamples were fixed in formalin. Four days after the anthelmintic treatment all horses were re-treated with ivermectin and faeces was collected on day 5. Individual subsamples from each of the four sampling occasions were examined for cyathostomin nematodes. Sixty-three to 270 worms per horse were identified to the species level. The majority of the worms recovered were expelled during the first day from horses treated with ivermectin or pyrantel pamoate, and during the second day from horses treated with fenbendazole. Fifteen cyathostomin species were identified and the six most prevalent were Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus, Cylicostephanus minutus and Cylicostephanus calicatus. These species composed 91% of the total burden of cyathostomins. The number of species found per horse ranged from 6 to 13, with an average of 9. No significant differences in species composition or distribution were found between the treatment groups. On day 5, i.e. 1 day after the last ivermectin treatment, 93% of the adult worms were recovered from horses in the fenbendazole group. This study showed that it was possible to identify cyathostomins expelled in faeces of dewormed horses, and that the most prevalent species corresponded to those found in autopsy surveys performed in other countries.