Armadillo repeat proteins: beyond the animal kingdom

Trends Cell Biol. 2003 Sep;13(9):463-71. doi: 10.1016/s0962-8924(03)00167-3.


Armadillo (Arm) repeat proteins contain tandem copies of a degenerate protein sequence motif that forms a conserved three-dimensional structure. Animal Arm repeat proteins function in various processes, including intracellular signalling and cytoskeletal regulation. A subset of these proteins are conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms, and non-metazoa such as Dictyostelium and Chlamydomonas possess homologues of members of the animal Arm repeat family. Higher plants also possess Arm repeat proteins, which, like their animal counterparts, function in intracellular signalling. Notably, these plant Arm proteins have novel functions. In addition, genome sequencing has identified a plethora of Arm-related proteins in Arabidopsis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / chemistry
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / chemistry
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism
  • Microtubules / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid / physiology*
  • Trans-Activators / chemistry
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Zebrafish Proteins*
  • beta Catenin


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Zebrafish Proteins
  • beta Catenin
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex