The vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are multimeric proton pumps involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. We have identified two alternative splicing variants of C2 subunit isoforms: C2-a, a lung-specific isoform containing a 46-amino acid insertion, and C2-b, a kidney-specific isoform without the insert. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies revealed that V-ATPase with C2-a is localized specifically in lamellar bodies of type II alveolar cells, whereas the C2-b isoform is found in the plasma membranes of renal alpha and beta intercalated cells. Immunoprecipitation combined with immunohistological analysis revealed that C2-b together with other kidney-specific isoforms was selectively assembled to form a unique proton pump in intercalated cells. Furthermore, a chimeric yeast V-ATPase with mouse the C2-a or C2-b isoform showed a lower Km(ATP) and lower proton transport activity than that with C1 or Vma5p (yeast C subunit). These results suggest that V-ATPases with the C2-a and C2-b isoform are involved in luminal acidification of lamellar bodies and regulation of the renal acid-base balance, respectively.