Immune regulation by novel costimulatory molecules

Immunol Res. 2003;28(1):39-48. doi: 10.1385/IR:28:1:39.


CD4 helper T (Th)-cells and the cytokines that they produce play essential regulatory roles in immune and autoimmune responses. Th activation and differentiation is regulated by costimulatory receptors. CD28 and CTLA-4 are important in maintaining the threshold of T-cell activation. ICOS and PD-1 are novel costimulatory receptors expressed on activated T-cells. B7-H3 recognizes a putative costimulatory receptor on activated T-cells. Here we summarize the latest developments in the novel costimulatory molecules and their roles in regulating Th activation, differentiation, and function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / genetics
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology
  • B7 Antigens
  • B7-1 Antigen / immunology
  • B7-1 Antigen / metabolism
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Humans
  • Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein
  • Lymphocyte Activation*
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / cytology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / metabolism


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
  • B7 Antigens
  • B7-1 Antigen
  • CD276 protein, human
  • CD28 Antigens
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human
  • ICOS protein, human
  • Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein
  • Receptors, Immunologic