The priority substances of List I, 76/464/EEC Directive, some of which belong to the new Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, have been monitored in the surface waters of Greece through the developed network of 53 sampling stations. The analytical methods used for the determination of these substances included Purge and Trap-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection for organochlorine insecticides, High Performance Liquid Chromatography for pentachlorophenol and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for metals. The results have shown the presence of several priority substances in Greek surface waters, in most cases at concentrations well below the regulatory limits. However, non-compliance was observed for a limited number of compounds. The monitoring network and the analytical determinations have to be expanded to more water bodies and more priority substances, in order to safeguard the quality of Greek surface waters.