Cardiometabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and treatment

Curr Hypertens Rep. 2003 Oct;5(5):393-401. doi: 10.1007/s11906-003-0085-y.


The cardiometabolic syndrome, an interesting constellation of maladaptive cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic, and inflammatory abnormalities, is now recognized as a disease entity by the American Society of Endocrinology, National Cholesterol Education Program, and World Health Organization, among others. These cardiovascular and metabolic derangements individually and interdependently lead to a substantial increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, making the cardiometabolic syndrome an established and strong risk factor for premature and severe CVD and stroke. Established and evolving treatment strategies including moderate physical activity, weight reduction, rigorous blood pressure control, correction of dyslipidemia, and glycemic control have proven beneficial in reversing these abnormal responses and decreasing the CVD risk.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / physiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / therapy*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Thrombophilia / epidemiology


  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I