Pansteatitis is caused by the consumption of high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and/or the insufficient intake of vitamin E, leading to inflammation of adipose tissue. This disease has been related to fish-based diets. However, non-conventional diets must also be considered. The authors present case records of two cats with pansteatitis, for which diet consisted mostly of pig's brain, comparing them with eight cases of disease in cats eating mainly oily fish. Cats fed pig's brain did not show clinical signs, while cats eating oily fish presented inappetence, depression, reluctance to move and subcutaneous nodules painful on palpation. Cats eating pig's brain did not show any change in blood parameters, while cats fed oily fish presented leukocytosis and anaemia. Histological examination confirmed pansteatitis in all cats, independently of the diet. All animals except one of the cats eating oily fish recovered after medical treatment and change of the feeding regime.