Hypertrophic scars result from excessive collagen deposition at sights of healing dermal wounds and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic. Pharmacological regulation of collagen synthesis and deposition is a direct approach to the control of scar tissue formation. We tested the ability of the phenanthrolinone derivative FG-1648 (in 0.5% Carbopol 971 PNF gel, pH 6.5), a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor, to reduce hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two treatment groups (n = 12 wounds per group with an equal number of controls): low-dose group: 0.5% FG-1648; high-dose group: 1% FG-1648. Left ears were used for treatment and right ear for control. Four 7-mm dermal ulcer wounds were made on each ear. The inhibitor was topically applied to the wound at the time of wounding and once daily up to postoperative day 7. Wounds were harvested at postoperative day 28 and scar hypertrophy quantified by measurement of the scar elevation index. All wounds showed complete healing. Treatment of wounds with 1% prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor decreased the scar elevation index by 26% compared to control wounds (p < 0.01). Wounds treated with 0.5% FG-1648 inhibitor showed no difference in scar elevation compared to control wounds. These results suggest that inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase may be a suitable agent for topical treatment for the prevention of hypertrophic scar tissue.