Diabetic retinopathy in Euro-Brazilian type 2 diabetic patients: relationship with polymorphisms in the aldose reductase, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Aug;61(2):133-6. doi: 10.1016/s0168-8227(03)00112-8.


We investigated the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and three polymorphisms, C(-106)T in the aldose reductase (ALR2) gene, 4G/5G in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene and C677T in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, in 210 Euro-Brazilian type 2 diabetic patients. Retinopathy was evaluated by funduscopic examination and genotype analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific restriction. Retinopathy was detected in 47% of the patients. There were no significant differences in allele or genotype distributions between patients with or without retinopathy for all polymorphisms. Thus, the three polymorphisms are not related to the presence of DR in Euro-Brazilian type 2 diabetic patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Reductase / genetics*
  • Alleles
  • Brazil
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / enzymology
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / ethnology
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / genetics*
  • Europe / ethnology
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) / genetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*


  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Aldehyde Reductase
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)