We designed a phase I clinical trial of vaccinations with autologous glioma cells expressing transgene-derived interleukin-4 (IL-4), and treated one patient with a right temporal lobe recurrent glioblastoma. This 62-year-old man underwent craniotomy and partial tumor removal, at which time autologous tumor cells were obtained for vaccine preparation. After confirming the patient's cellular immune function by skin test, two cycles of vaccination with irradiated autologous glioma cells admixed with gene transfected fibroblasts were given intradermally. The patient demonstrated no evidence of allergic encephalitis throughout this course. Immunohistochemistry with biopsy samples taken from the vaccine sites demonstrated that the infiltration level of CD4, CD8 and CD1a positive cells increased proportionally to the amount of IL-4 produced at the each site, suggesting that there was local immune response induced at the vaccine site. While it is premature to assess effectiveness of the vaccine, this initial patient's course suggested a transient response to the vaccine, and he survived 10 months after treatment.