Monoclonal antibody TP-1 has been shown to bind selectively to human and canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro using immunohistochemical stains. This report describes the in vivo administration of radioiodinated F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibody TP-1 in dogs with primary and/or metastatic spontaneous osteosarcoma. Two dogs were injected with 131labeled F(ab')2 TP-1 and two dogs were injected with 123labeled antibody fragments. Immunoscintigraphy successfully demonstrated the radiolabeled antibody fragments in 6/6 known primary or metastatic lesions and in addition detected 4 metastatic lesions not diagnosed by conventional radiographs. Concurrent imaging of 99mTc labeled autologous erythrocytes in two dogs confirmed that the accumulation of radiolabeled antibody fragments was independent of the blood pool. There was no immunoscintigraphic evidence of localization of radioiodine to normal organs or tissues other than those expected to accumulate free iodine. The present study has demonstrated the potential of monoclonal antibody TP-1 F(ab')2 fragments for early detection of metastatic spread of spontaneous osteosarcoma.