Oxidative stress evokes various cellular events, including activation of transcription factors, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Accumulating evidence shows that reduction/oxidation (redox) plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest elicited by oxidative stress. Cellular redox is controlled by the thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione (GSH) systems. TRX and GSH systems regulate cell growth and cell death by the activation of transcription factors, the sensitivity of cells to cytokines and growth factors, and the components of the apoptosis pathways. This brief review describes the current knowledge on the redox regulation of cell growth and apoptosis.