Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a non-invasive method in detecting abnormal spectra of various brain metabolites containing N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), Creatine (Cr), gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Glutamate. Technical processing of the MR-systems, improved automated shimming methods and further development of special shim coils increase the magnetic field homogeneity and lead to a better spectral quality and spectral resolution. The handling of the systems becomes more user-friendly and is more likely to be used in routine diagnostics. The 1H-MRS has become a diagnostic tool for assessing a number of diseases of the central nervous system mainly including epilepsies and brain tumours. The role of 1H-MRS in the assessment of epilepsies will probably increase in future. In the following article, the principles of 1H-MRS and an overview of it in the evaluation and treatment of epilepsies with special regard to temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) has been illustrated.