Ribosome synthesis is a highly complex and coordinated process that occurs not only in the nucleolus but also in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Based on the protein composition of several ribosomal subunit precursors recently characterized in yeast, a total of more than 170 factors are predicted to participate in ribosome biogenesis and the list is still growing. So far the majority of ribosomal factors have been implicated in RNA maturation (nucleotide modification and processing). Recent advances gave insight into the process of ribosome export and assembly. Proteomic approaches have provided the first indications for a ribosome assembly pathway in eukaryotes and confirmed the dynamic character of the whole process.