Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid which is a potent mitogen for glioblastoma multiforme cells. Here we show that S1P also potently enhances the in vitro motility of glioblastoma cells by signaling through receptors coupled to G(i/o) proteins. Moreover, S1P also enhanced in vitro invasion of glioblastoma cells through Matrigel. S1P had no effect on matrix metalloproteinase secretion but did enhance glioblastoma cell adhesion. S1P is present at high levels in brain tissue. Thus it is possible that autocrine or paracrine signaling by S1P through its G protein-coupled receptors enhances both glioma cell proliferation and invasiveness.