We investigated organic anion and cation transport activity and the expression of several organic ion transporters in hyperuricemic rat kidney. Feeding oxonic acid, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, and uric acid for 10 days significantly increased plasma uric acid level. Plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations also increased in hyperuricemic rats, indicating impaired renal function. The accumulation of organic anions, p-aminohippurate (PAH) and methotrexate, and cations, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and cimetidine, into renal slices was markedly decreased, suggesting decreased transport activity for organic anions and cations at the basolateral membrane in the kidney. The expression levels of basolateral organic anion transporters rOAT1 and rOAT3, and organic cation transporter, rOCT2, significantly decreased in hyperuricemic rat kidney as assessed by mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, the expression of rOCT1 was unaltered by hyperuricemia at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the mRNA expression of kidney-specific organic anion transporters, OAT-K1 and OAT-K2, and organic anion transporting polypeptide (oatp) 1, which localize at the brush-border membrane in the kidney, was unchanged in hyperuricemic rats. In conclusion, we showed decreased basolateral organic anion and cation transport activity, accompanied by a specific decrease in rOAT1, rOAT3 and rOCT2 expression in hyperuricemic rat kidney. These phenomena partly contribute to the changed renal disposition of organic anions and cations in hyperuricemia.