Expression of the p16INK4A (p16), p15INK4B (p15), and p14ARF genes, located at 9p21, was examined in pediatric neuroblastoma (NB), Ewing's sarcoma (ES), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). p16 expression was absent in 4 of 5 ESs, and 2 of these 4 cases died. p16 expression was reduced or absent in 10 of 12 RMSs, and 4 of these 10 cases died. These results suggested the possibility that p16 expression was associated with the progression of ES and RMS. There has been no previous report on p14ARF in NB. Our investigation might indicate that abnormal expression of the p16 and p14ARF was associated with a poor prognosis in NB, although in some cases of NB normal p16 and abnormal p14ARF expression was seen. These findings suggest an important role of p14ARF gene in the tumorigenesis of NB. The different incidence of expression of the p16, p15, and p14ARF genes in these 3 tumor types may reflect differences of the molecular process through which the 3 tumors develop. Our results suggest that abnormal expression of the p16 and/or p14ARF may be associated with a poor prognosis in these 3 tumors.