Anbmp2/4 is a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily isolated from a crinoid and involved in regeneration

Proc Biol Sci. 2003 Jul 7;270(1522):1341-7. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2367.


Invertebrates have frequently been used to help understand the complexities of regulatory gene function and evolution. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a highly conserved group of secreted regulatory factors that play an important part in early embryonic patterning. In the present study we have used the remarkable regenerative potential of crinoid echinoderms to explore the BMPs' site of expression in an adult developmental programme. Our results suggest that a crinoid BMP2/4 homologue is actively involved during the early stages of blastemal regeneration at a time when fundamental patterns are being established. This supports the idea of an evolutionary developmental programme where essential gene families are conserved throughout phylogeny in terms of both expression and function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / chemistry
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism*
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Invertebrates / genetics
  • Invertebrates / physiology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / chemistry
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta