Intra-myocellular triglycerides (IMTG) accumulate in the muscle of obese and endurance-trained (ET) humans and are considered a pathogenic factor in the development of insulin resistance, in the former. We postulate that this paradox may be associated with the peroxidation status of the IMTG. IMTG content was the same in the obese and ET subjects. The lipid peroxidation/IMTG ratio was 4.2-fold higher in the obese subjects. Hence, obesity results in an increased level of IMTG peroxidation while ET has a protective effect on IMTG peroxidation. This suggests a link between the lipid peroxidation/IMTG ratio and insulin resistance.