In the larval brain of dipteran insects, there are two medial and three lateral groups of neurons innervating the ring gland. One lateral group extends fibers to the corpus allatum. After metamorphosis, a large cluster of the medial group in the pars intercerebralis and two lateral groups in the pars lateralis innervate the retrocerebral complex and some neurons from the lateral group and a few from the medial group extend fibers to the corpus allatum in the adults. Neuropeptides such as insulin-like peptides, FMRFamide related peptides, Locusta-diuretic hormone, beta-pigment dispersing hormone, Manduca sexta-allatostatin, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone, and proctolin have been immunocytochemically revealed in medial groups in the pars intercerebralis, and FMRFamide related peptides, beta-pigment dispersing hormone, corazonin, and M. sexta-allatostatin in lateral groups in the pars lateralis of dipteran brains. In mosquitoes after the blood meal, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone from 2-3 pairs of medial neurosecretory cells is released at the corpus cardiacum to stimulate the ovaries to secrete ecdysteroid to cause ovarian development. In addition to ovarian development, removal and implantation experiments have shown that neurosecretory cells in the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis are involved in control of reproductive diapause, cuticular tanning, sugar metabolism, and diures.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.