A second canon. Functions and mechanisms of beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling

Dev Cell. 2003 Sep;5(3):367-77. doi: 10.1016/s1534-5807(03)00266-1.


More is becoming known about so-called noncanonical Wnt pathways that signal independently of beta-catenin. Here we review recent developments in both the functions and mechanisms of noncanonical Wnt signaling. We also discuss some unresolved and vexing questions. How many noncanonical Wnt pathways are there? How extensive are the parallels between Drosophila planar polarization and vertebrate convergence and extension? Last, we will outline some challenges and difficulties we foresee for this exciting but still very young field.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / physiology*
  • Drosophila
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Insect Proteins / classification
  • Insect Proteins / physiology*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / classification
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Trans-Activators / physiology*
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Zebrafish Proteins*
  • beta Catenin


  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Insect Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Zebrafish Proteins
  • beta Catenin
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Calcium