Endocrine mechanisms of disease: Expression and degradation of androgen receptor: mechanism and clinical implication

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Sep;88(9):4043-54. doi: 10.1210/jc.2003-030261.


The androgen-androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays a key role in proper development and function of male reproductive organs, such as prostate and epididymis, as well as nonreproductive organs, such as muscle, hair follicles, and brain. Abnormalities in the androgen-AR signaling pathway have been linked to diseases, such as male infertility, Kennedy's disease, and prostate cancer. Regulation of AR activity can be achieved in several different ways: modulation of AR gene expression, androgen binding to AR, AR nuclear translocation, AR protein stability, and AR trans-activation. This review covers mechanisms implicated in the control of AR protein expression and degradation, and their potential linkage to the androgen-related diseases. A better understanding of such mechanisms may help us to design more effective androgens and antiandrogens to battle androgen-related diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / pharmacology
  • Androgens / physiology
  • Diet
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis*
  • Receptors, Androgen / chemistry
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics


  • Androgens
  • Receptors, Androgen