On November 7, 2002, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania). Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing during labor and delivery allows pregnant women who were not tested previously during pregnancy to be tested and, if HIV-infected, to begin antiretroviral therapy immediately to prevent perinatal transmission. To evaluate whether point-of-care rapid HIV testing during labor and delivery expedites the diagnosis of HIV infection in pregnant women, CDC assessed turnaround testing times at three hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, in which obstetric staff performed rapid tests on whole blood specimens at point of care, and at a fourth hospital in which testing was performed in the hospital laboratory. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that point-of-care rapid testing provided HIV test results faster than laboratory testing, resulting in prompt administration of intrapartum and neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis. Hospitals should assess the costs and benefits of implementing point-of-care HIV testing within their institutions.