Clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a clinical review of 173 cases

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003 Jun;34(2):291-7.


Toxoplasmosis was the most common cause of primary retinochoroiditis. The majority of cases of ocular toxoplasmosis were congenital. However, cases of acquired ocular toxoplasmosis have been reported. The clinical manifestations of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis were choroidal coloboma, strabismus, nystagmus, ptosis, microphthalmia, cataract and enophthalmia. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical presentation and visual outcome of 173 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis at Dr Sardjito Hospital, Dr Yap Eye Hospital, and private practice during the last six years. A total of 173 subjects were studied--98 males and 75 females. The ages at which first diagnosis was established ranged from 3 months to 68 years, frequently in young adults and occurring mostly in students. The most-reported chief complaint was blurred vision in 70.5% and floaters in 6.1% of cases. The most frequent clinical manifestations were chorioretinitis (71.2%), macular scars (22.4%), squint (6.4%), congenital cataract (2.8%), nystagmus (6.4%) and atrophic optic papilla (2.8%). Bilateral involvement was found in 32.4% of all patients. The therapeutic outcome showed improvement, especially visual acuity in acute cases (25.6%). However, visual acuity categorized as blindness was 13.9%. The results of the study imply that suddenly blurred vision in the quiet eye in the young adult, squint, and nystagmus in children could be chorioretinal inflammation and scar caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / epidemiology
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / pathology*