Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress

Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2003 Oct;6(5):441-5. doi: 10.1016/s1369-5266(03)00085-2.


When under salt stress, plants maintain a high concentration of K(+) and a low concentration of Na(+) in the cytosol. They do this by regulating the expression and activity of K(+) and Na(+) transporters and of H(+) pumps that generate the driving force for transport. Although salt-stress sensors remain elusive, some of the intermediary signaling components have been identified. Evidence suggests that a protein kinase complex consisting of the myristoylated calcium-binding protein SOS3 and the serine/threonine protein kinase SOS2 is activated by a salt-stress-elicited calcium signal. The protein kinase complex then phosphorylates and activates various ion transporters, such as the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter SOS1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / drug effects
  • Adaptation, Physiological / genetics*
  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Homeostasis / drug effects
  • Plant Development
  • Plants / drug effects
  • Plants / genetics*
  • Potassium / metabolism*
  • Potassium / pharmacology
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Sodium / metabolism*
  • Sodium / pharmacology


  • Sodium
  • Potassium