Review of newer antifungal and immunomodulatory strategies for invasive aspergillosis

Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;37 Suppl 3:S157-87. doi: 10.1086/376523.


The incidence of invasive aspergillosis is markedly increasing, and mortality remains dismal. Previously there were only 2 antifungals with activity against Aspergillus, but over the last few years there has been an explosion of newer agents and reformulations of older antifungals. Exploration has also begun with immunotherapy, with use of cytokines and granulocyte transfusions alone or in combination with antifungal therapy. This review will detail the available in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experience with the newer antifungal and immunomodulatory therapies in development for treatment of invasive aspergillosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aminoglycosides*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antifungal Agents / classification
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Aspergillosis / drug therapy*
  • Aspergillosis / therapy
  • Azoles / classification
  • Azoles / therapeutic use
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Cytokines / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Granulocytes / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Polyenes / classification
  • Polyenes / therapeutic use


  • Aminoglycosides
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Azoles
  • Cytokines
  • Polyenes
  • nikkomycin