A 10-session, self-management training program was designed specifically for persons over 60 years of age having Type II diabetes. It targeted social learning variables, especially problem-solving skills and self-efficacy, found to be related to diabetes self-care in earlier correlational research. One hundred two adults were randomized to immediate or delayed intervention conditions. At posttest, subjects in the immediate intervention condition showed significantly greater reductions in caloric intake and percent of calories from fat than control subjects. The intervention also produced greater weight reductions and increases in the frequency of glucose testing than did the control condition. Improvements among immediate intervention subjects were generally maintained at a 6-month follow-up. Intervention results from subjects receiving delayed intervention closely replicated those for immediate intervention subjects. We conclude that a relatively short-term program can improve self-management skills of older diabetic adults, and that there is an important need for such interventions.