Mutations leading to hemophilia A by substitution of amino acids in coagulation factor VIII may provide important clues to the structure and function of this large and enigmatic protein. To efficiently find missense mutations, hemophiliacs with mild and moderately severe forms of the disease were surveyed. DNA samples from affected individuals were assayed for mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis following DNA amplification of target regions, which included all coding regions except for that of the dispensable B domain. Missense mutations were observed in 20 of the 34 patients examined, with identical mutations found in five pairs of patients. All mutations were found in the repetitive A and C domains. By aligning these domains in factor VIII with homologous domains in factor V, ceruloplasmin, and the mouse milk fat globule membrane protein, it was determined that most mutations change amino acids in areas of strong sequence conservation. Three additional mutations were detected, including a point mutation in an intron, a stop codon mutation, and a silent base change. Ten of the 18 different mutations discovered in this patient population are reported here for the first time.