The peroxisomal membrane protein, with a relative molecular mass of 70,000 (M(r) 70K) (PMP70), is an important component of peroxisomal membranes and an ATP-binding cassette protein. To investigate its possible involvement in Zellweger syndrome (ZS), an inborn error of peroxisome assembly, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs for human PMP70 and mapped the gene to chromosome 1. Amongst 32 probands with ZS or related disorders, we found two mutant PMP70 alleles in single ZS probands from the same complementation group. One allele has a donor splice site mutation and the second a missense mutation. Our results suggest that PMP70 plays an important role in peroxisome biogenesis and that mutations in PMP70 may be responsible for a subset of ZS patients.