Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy associated with a large DNA duplication on the short arm of human chromosome 17. The trembler (Tr) mouse serves as a model for CMT1A because of phenotypic similarities and because the Tr locus maps to mouse chromosome 11 in a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 17. Recently, the peripheral myelin gene Pmp-22 was found to carry a point mutation in Tr mice. We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones for human PMP-22. The gene maps to human chromosome 17p11.2-17p12, is expressed at high levels in peripheral nervous tissue and is duplicated, but not disrupted, in CMT1A patients. Thus, we suggest that a gene dosage effect involving PMP-22 is at least partially responsible for the demyelinating neuropathy seen in CMT1A.