Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a DNA duplication at chromosome 17p11.2. In view of the point mutation in the gene for peripheral myelin protein pmp-22/gas-3 in Trembler mice, a murine model for CMT1A, we have analysed whether this gene is altered in CMT1A. Here we show that the human homologue of the murine pmp-22 gene is located within the CMT1A DNA duplication, which is a direct repeat and does not interrupt the coding region of PMP-22. Expression of PMP-22 in CMT1A fibroblasts is similar to expression in control fibroblasts. Increased gene dosage or altered PMP-22 expression in the peripheral nervous system are therefore possible mechanisms by which PMP-22 is involved in CMT1A.