The Trembler mouse suffers from a dominantly inherited autosomal mutation affecting the Schwann cell activities, which results in an abnormal myelination of the peripheral nervous system. Very recently, it has been shown that the mutation is in the PMP-22 gene. However, the level of expression of the mutated gene in trembler mice has not been studied. Therefore, we measured the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding PMP-22 in the sciatic nerve of normal and trembler mice, and we compared these results with the steady-state levels of mRNAs encoding the major peripheral nervous system myelin proteins. Our results show that all the myelin protein genes studied are affected by the trembler mutation but to a different extent, and that the PMP-22 gene is expressed at very low levels in the trembler nerve. This suggests that regulation of the expression of the PMP-22 gene is altered in the Trembler mutant.