Neuronal activity in the CA1 of rats was explored with regard to functional correlates of performance in an odor-guided continuous delayed non-match to sample task. Although different CA1 cells fired in association with each identifiable trial event, these analyses focused on cells that fired selectively during the period of odor cue sampling and response generation. The firing patterns of many of these cells reflected the match or non-match comparison between current and previous odor cues independent of the particular stimuli that composed those comparisons. Such cells were more prevalent in sessions when performance was highly accurate. Hippocampal cells did not demonstrate stimulus-evoked firing that persisted through the memory delay, nor did they fire differentially to session-novel vs. repeated odor presentations. These results suggest that the hippocampus contributes to recognition memory by processing comparisons between current information and representations of previous stimuli stored in parahippocampal and neocortical structures.