Avipoxviruses, members of the Poxvirus family, are naturally restricted in that productive replication takes place only in avian species. Recent work has described the construction of Avipox recombinants using fowlpox and canarypox viruses. Preparation of recombinant fowlpox viruses which express immunogens from avian pathogens and successful vaccination of poultry have been reported. Recombinant fowlpox and canarypox viruses which express immunogens from mammalian pathogens have also been described and have been demonstrated to provide protective immunity on inoculation in non-avian species. This is a surprising result. Such non-replicating expression vectors provide the possibility of developing safe, effective vaccines which combine the advantages of killed and live vaccines.