The establishment and characterization of 11 human lung cancer cell lines are described in this article. Nine of these cell lines were established over a 5-year period, from 1983 to 1988, from patients treated at the Kingston Regional Cancer Centre. These include eight definite or probable small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines and one adenocarcinoma line. In addition, two other SCLC cell lines were characterized. All of the lines have been in continuous culture for more than 2 years. The clinical histories of the patients from whom the cell lines were derived are outlined here. Several features of the cell lines are presented, including the following: (1) a comparison of the histologic features of the cell lines with the original biopsy specimens; (2) the expression of various markers, including cytokeratin, carcinoembryonic antigen, calcitonin, and neuron-specific enolase; (3) activities of the enzymes l-dopa decarboxylase and the brain isoenzyme of creatine kinase; (4) growth characteristics; (5) cloning efficiency in soft agar; (6) tumorigenicity in nude mice; and (7) cytogenetic studies. These cell lines, obtained directly from patients with a spectrum of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tumors, will be valuable in vitro models of sensitivity and resistance to chemotherapy in lung cancer.