1. We studied neutrophil-activating peptide-1/interleukin-8 in inflammatory bowel disease. 2. Mucosal levels of neutrophil-activating peptide-1/interleukin-8 were significantly higher in patients with active ulcerative colitis [median 74.5 (range 17.7-450.8) pg/mg] than in patients with active Crohn's disease [10.4 (4-46.9) pg/mg; P less than 0.002] or in normal control subjects [10.4 (4-16.6) pg/mg; P less than 0.002]. 3. Circulating neutrophil-activating peptide-1/interleukin-8 was generally undetectable but there were higher levels of anti-neutrophil-activating peptide-1/interleukin-8 antibodies in patients with active ulcerative colitis [62.9 (3.4-239) ng/ml] than in patients with active Crohn's disease [5.9 (2.1-18.10) ng/ml; P less than 0.001] or in control subjects [6.1 (3.2-15.8) ng/ml; P less than 0.001]. 4. Neutrophil-activating peptide-1/interleukin-8 may be of specific functional importance in mediating inflammation in ulcerative colitis.