IgM antibodies to Coxsackie B virus (CBV) have recently been observed in the serum of a relatively high proportion of children with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In the present study, 108 IDDM patients below the age of 15 years, diagnosed during the period 1976 to 1985, were investigated at the onset of their disease by mu-antibody-capture radioimmunoassay (RIA) of IgM against seven different enterovirus antigens, namely virions of CBV serotypes 1-5 (CBV 1-5) and procapsids of CBV 3 and CBV 5. As has been shown the RIAs with virions give type-specific or narrow type-specific reactions, whereas procapsids react with IgM against both homotypic and heterotypic enteroviruses. The annual frequency of IgM against virions varied between 15 and 76% (mean 38%). IgM against CBV3 and CBV2 predominated, but IgM against the other serotypes was also observed. When procapsids were used as antigen, the frequency of IgM varied between 11 and 86% (mean 63%). With virions and procapsids, the corresponding variation was 44-100% (mean 70%). The total number of patients exhibiting virion-IgM was 41, whereas procapsid-IgM alone [indicating an infection with Coxsackie A virus (CAV) and/or echo virus (EV)] was detected in 36 patients. For 2 of the years, samples of serum from control groups were included. These showed a significantly lower frequency of IgM in both the virion and the procapsid RIAs. It is concluded that not only infection with CBV but also that with other enteroviruses, such as CAV and/or EV, may be involved in the pathogenesis of IDDM in children.