C. elegans PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for apicobasal asymmetries associated with cell adhesion and gastrulation

Development. 2003 Nov;130(22):5339-50. doi: 10.1242/dev.00735. Epub 2003 Sep 16.


PAR proteins distribute asymmetrically across the anterior-posterior axis of the 1-cell-stage C. elegans embryo, and function to establish subsequent anterior-posterior asymmetries. By the end of the 4-cell stage, anteriorly localized PAR proteins, such as PAR-3 and PAR-6, redistribute to the outer, apical surfaces of cells, whereas posteriorly localized PAR proteins, such as PAR-1 and PAR-2, redistribute to the inner, basolateral surfaces. Because PAR proteins are provided maternally, distinguishing apicobasal from earlier anterior-posterior functions requires a method that selectively prevents PAR activity after the 1-cell stage. In the present study we generated hybrid PAR proteins that are targeted for degradation after the 1-cell stage. Embryos containing the hybrid PAR proteins had normal anterior-posterior polarity, but showed defects in apicobasal asymmetries associated with gastrulation. Ectopic separations appeared between lateral surfaces of cells that are normally tightly adherent, cells that ingress during gastrulation failed to accumulate nonmuscle myosin at their apical surfaces and ingression was slowed. Thus, PAR proteins function in both apicobasal and anterior-posterior asymmetry during the first few cell cycles of embryogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / embryology*
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Gastrula / metabolism*
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Transgenes


  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • Proteins
  • ZF-1 protein, Sus scrofa
  • par-6 protein, C elegans
  • PAR-3 protein, C elegans
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases