Bacillus krulwichiae sp. nov., a halotolerant obligate alkaliphile that utilizes benzoate and m-hydroxybenzoate

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;53(Pt 5):1531-1536. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.02596-0.


Obligate alkaliphilic strains, AM31D(T) and AM11D, that utilize benzoate and m-hydroxybenzoate were isolated from soil obtained from Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. The isolates grew at pH 8-10, but not at neutral pH. They were Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods with peritrichous flagella and produced ellipsoidal spores. The isolates reduced nitrate to nitrite and grew in 0-14 % NaCl, but not in higher concentrations. The major isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-5, -6 and -7, and the cellular fatty acid profile consisted of significant amounts of 15-C branched-chain acids, isoC(15 : 0) and anteisoC(15 : 0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that strain AM31D(T) was a member of group 6 (alkaliphiles) in the genus Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness of the isolates with several phylogenetically close neighbours, including Bacillus alcalophilus and Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus (less than 19.3 %). Based on phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it was concluded that these isolates merited classification as a new species, for which the name Bacillus krulwichiae is proposed. The type strain of this species is AM31D(T) (=NCIMB 13904(T)=JCM 11691(T)=IAM 15000(T)).

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus / classification*
  • Bacillus / genetics
  • Bacillus / isolation & purification
  • Bacillus / metabolism*
  • Benzoates / metabolism
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Fatty Acids / analysis
  • Hydroxybenzoates / metabolism
  • Japan
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phenotype
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Soil Microbiology
  • Vitamin K 2 / analysis


  • Benzoates
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • Fatty Acids
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • RNA, Bacterial
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Vitamin K 2
  • 3-hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Sodium Chloride

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB086897