Plaques have been produced with the three types of poliomyelitis viruses on monolayer tissue cultures of monkey kidney and monkey testis. The number of plaques was proportional to the concentration of the virus. Each plaque originates, therefore, from a single virus particle, defined as the virus unit that is unseparable by dilution. The plaques are due to the specific action of the virus since they are suppressed by type-specific antiserum. Pure virus lines were established by isolating the virus population produced in single plaques. These derived virus lines had the same morphological, serological, and pathogenic properties as the parent strain. High titer virus stocks, with titers up to 7 x 10(8) plaque-forming particles per ml., were obtained.