Leukotrienes are potent biological mediators of allergic and inflammatory diseases and are derived from arachidonic acid through the action of the 5-lipoxygenase. In this study, the syntheses and comparative biological activities of three series of 2,3-dihydro-2,6-disubstituted-5-benzofuranols with various substituents on position 3 are described. Compounds from each series were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and the 5-lipoxygenase reaction in cell-free preparations from rat PMN leukocytes. The structure-activity relationships of each series in vitro and in vivo are presented. The bioavailability, metabolism, and toxicity profile of each series are discussed. The series with no substituent at position 3 was the most potent and among the compounds in that series 2,3-dihydro-6-(3-phenoxypropyl)-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5-benzofuranol (46, L-670,630) was chosen for further development.