Aggressive angiomyxoma of pelvic soft parts is a rare lesion with a high risk of recurrence. We report 10 cases of angiomyofibroblastoma, a hitherto uncharacterized benign tumor of the vulva histologically mimicking aggressive angiomyxoma. All patients had a vulval mass, often clinically diagnosed as a Bartholin's cyst. There was no recurrence after excision. The tumors were well circumscribed, measuring 0.5-12 cm in maximum dimension. They were characterized by alternating hypercellular and hypocellular edematous zones in which abundant blood vessels (predominantly of the capillary type) were irregularly distributed. Spindled, plump spindled, and oval stromal cells were aggregated around the blood vessels, sometimes forming solid compact foci, or were loosely dispersed in the hypocellular areas. Their nuclei were bland, but rare ones were enlarged and hyperchromatic in four cases. Some cells had abundant eosinophilic hyaline cytoplasm and eccentrically placed nuclei. Mitotic figures were absent or very sparse. Scattered throughout were thin, wavy strands or thick bundles of collagen. Mast cells were readily seen in eight cases. Immunohistochemically, the stromal cells were reactive for vimentin and desmin, but not cytokeratin, muscle-specific actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, or S-100 protein. Ultrastructural studies showed well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, abundant intermediate filaments, and pinocytotic vesicles in the stromal cells. Angiomyofibroblastoma can be distinguished from aggressive angiomyxoma by its circumscribed borders, much higher cellularity, more numerous blood vessels (which lack prominent hyalinization), frequent presence of plump stromal cells, minimal stromal mucin, and rarity of erythrocyte extravasation.