Human bone marrow has been shown to contain mesenchymal cells, which fabricate the connective tissue network of the marrow called the stroma. A subset of these marrow-derived mesenchymal cells can be isolated, expanded in culture, and then induced to differentiate into bone-producing osteoblasts and ultimately osteocytes when placed in the proper environment. At present, there are no methods for definitively identifying these cells in human marrow tissue or following their differentiation into osteogenic phenotypes. Therefore, we culture-expanded, marrow-derived mesenchymal cells from human donors and used these cells to immunize cells from human donors and used these cells to immunize mice whose spleens were used to generate hybridoma cell lines, which secrete antibodies to antigens on the cell surface of these culture-expanded mesenchymal cells. Hybridoma culture supernatants were successively screened against highly enriched samples of culture-expanded, marrow-derived mesenchymal cells in cryosections and live cell cultures to identify unique cell surface antigens. Positive clones were then screened against cell suspensions of whole and fractionated marrow to identify hybridomas whose supernatants were nonreactive with marrow hemopoietic cells. Three hybridoma cell lines, SH2, SH3, and SH4, were identified; these hybridomas secrete antibodies that recognize antigens on the cell surface of marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, but fail to react with marrow-derived hemopoietic cells. Additional tissue screening reveals unique tissue distributions for each of the recognized antigens, which suggests different antigen recognition for each antibody. However, all three antibodies fail to react with the cell surface of osteoblasts or osteocytes, suggesting that the antigens recognized by these antibodies are developmentally regulated and specific for primitive or early-stage cells of the osteogenic lineage.