A 93 kd polypeptide associated with the mammalian inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is localized at central synapses and binds with high affinity to polymerized tubulin. This protein, named gephyrin (from the Greek gamma epsilon phi upsilon rho alpha, bridge), is thought to anchor the GlyR to subsynaptic microtubules. Here we report its primary structure deduced from cDNA and show that corresponding transcripts are found in all rat tissues examined. In brain, at least five different gephyrin mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing. Expression of gephyrin cDNAs in 293 kidney cells yields polypeptides reactive with a gephyrin-specific antibody, which coprecipitate with polymerized tubulin. Thus, gephyrin may define a novel type of microtubule-associated protein involved in membrane protein-cytoskeleton interactions.