A stable cell line, KHM-3S, was established from a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), who had a high serum level of soluble interleukin 2 receptors (sIL2-R) and was seropositive for human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1. KHM-3S cells were positive for IL2-R (Tac) and NKH-1, but negative for other lymphocytic markers such as OKT 11, OKT 4, OKT 8, T cell receptor (WT 31), B 1, and B 4. Moreover, the KHM-3S cells were negative for leukocyte common antigen and strongly positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Secretion of sIL2-R and NSE by the KHM-3S line was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rearrangement of the T cell receptor gene and monoclonal HTLV-1 integration were found by Southern blot analysis of KHM-3S DNA. However, Northern blot analysis showed no T cell receptor mRNA. KHM-3S may be useful for studies on the role of HTLV-1 in carcinogenesis and IL2-R expression in SCLC.